Cost and utilization of blood transfusion associated with spinal surgeries in the United States.
Eur Spine J
Blanchette CM, Wang PF, Joshi AV, Asmussen M, Saunders W, Kruse P.
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Premier Inc., Pharmaceutical Research Services, Charlotte, NC, USA.
The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the utilization and cost of blood transfusion during and post-spinal fusion surgery. A retrospective, observational study of 42,029 inpatients undergoing spinal fusion surgery in United States hospitals participating in the Perspective(TM) Comparative Database for inpatient use was conducted. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression, and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were used to describe the factors associated with the use and cost of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). Hospitalization costs were $18,690 (SD=14,159) per patient, erythropoietin costs were $85.25 (SD=3,691.66) per patient, and topical sealant costs were $414.34 (SD=1,020.06) per patient. Sub-analysis of ABT restricted to users revealed ABT costs ranged from $312.24 (SD=543.35) per patient with whole blood to $2,520 (SD=3,033.49) per patient with fresh frozen plasma. Patients that received hypotensive anesthesia (OR,1.61; 95% CI, 1.47-1.77), a volume expander (OR,1.95; 95% CI, 1.75-2.18), autologous blood (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.71-2.42), or an erythropoietic agent (OR=1.64; 95% CI, 1.27-2.12) had a higher risk of ABT. Patients that received cell salvage had a lower risk of transfusion (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.32-0.50). Most blood avoidance techniques have low utilization or do not reduce the burden of transfusion associated with spinal fusion.