Pillar 2: minimising bleeding and blood loss.
Editorial: Best Pract Res Clin
Bisbe E1, Moltó L.
One of the main factors that contributes to the need for transfusion in the surgical patient is excessive blood loss. Pillar 2 of patient blood management (PBM) includes all the strategies to reduce bleeding and preserve the patient’s own blood, designed with an aim to reducing or avoiding transfusion. Some of these strategies, such as identifying and planning the management of patients at high risk of bleeding, can be implemented as early as at the preoperative assessment visit. During the intra-operative period, local haemostasis is the most important factor in the control of bleeding; in this context, therefore, surgical technique and meticulous haemostasis are fundamental measures. However, there are also additional anaesthetic techniques that can help reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements, such as the use of pharmacological or haemostatic agents. After surgery, PBM continues in the postoperative recovery unit or on the ward with the monitoring and management of postoperative bleeding. The blood lost via drains can be filtered, washed and reinfused, if needed