Intravenous iron in inflammatory bowel disease.

Editorial: World J Gastroentero
Fecha: 01/10/2009
Muñoz M, Gómez-Ramírez S, García-Erce JA.

The prevalence of anemia across studies on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high (30%). Both iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease contribute most to the development of anemia in IBD. The prevalence of ID is even higher (45%). Anemia and ID negatively impact the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, together with an adequate control of disease activity, iron replacement therapy should start as soon as anemia or ID is detected to attain a normal hemoglobin (Hb) and iron status. Many patients will respond to oral iron, but compliance may be poor, whereas intravenous (i.v.) compounds are safe, provide a faster Hb increase and iron store repletion, and presents a lower rate of treatment discontinuation. Absolute indications for i.v. iron treatment should include severe anemia, intolerance or inappropriate response to oral iron, severe intestinal disease activity, or use of an erythropoietic stimulating agent. Four different products are principally used in clinical practice, which differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles: iron gluconate and iron sucrose (lower single doses), and iron dextran and ferric carboxymaltose (higher single doses). After the initial resolution of anemia and the repletion of iron stores, the patient’s hematological and iron parameters should be carefully and periodically monitored, and maintenance iron treatment should be provided as required. New i.v. preparations that allow for giving 1000-1500 mg in a single session, thus facilitating patient management, provide an excellent tool to prevent or treat anemia and ID in this patient population, which in turn avoids allogeneic blood transfusion and improves their quality of life.

Iron metabolism, iron deficiency, thrombocytosis, and the cardiorenal anemia syndrome.

Editorial: Oncologist
Fecha: 01/10/2009
Besarab A, Hörl WH, Silverberg D.

In treating moderate to severe anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), oral iron is effective only in a minority of nondialysis patients. Intravenous iron is more effective and can raise levels of hemoglobin even without the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Unfortunately, the current assays of iron status that are presently widely available are not especially helpful in predicting response. In patients on dialysis, i.v. iron is effective over a wide range of serum ferritin from <100 ng/ml to 800 ng/ml. None of the three available randomized controlled trials comparing oral with i.v. iron showed evidence of nephrotoxicity caused by i.v. iron. Iron deficiency is a risk factor for thrombocytosis and should, wherever possible, be avoided. Optimal coadministration of iron may reduce the risk for ESA-driven cardiovascular events. Increased total body iron stores (imperfectly reflected by serum ferritin levels in CKD) do not appear to be related to such events or hospitalization in CKD; it is unclear what other risk factors and mechanisms need to be considered. In the appreciable proportion of patients with both renal and cardiac dysfunction, management is further complicated by a vicious circle (which can be characterized as cardiorenal anemia syndrome) in which CKD, heart failure, and anemia exacerbate each other. In such patients, correction of anemia appears to improve cardiac function and quality of life without a greater risk for adverse events.

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